Ruth Denison — was another senior teacher of the U Ba Khin method. Anagarika Munindra studied with both S. Goenka and Mahasi Sayadaw, and combined both lineages. Dipa Ma was a student of his. It was introduced to Sri Lanka in , but became popular in the s with the arrival of Burmese monks,  where it gained great popularity among the laity, but was also severely criticised because of its disregard of samatta.
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Prominent teacher Bhikkhu Bodhi is a student of Nyanaponika. Ajahn Tong was a Thai master who studied for a short time under Mahasi Sayadaw before returning to found his own Vipassana lineage at Chom Tong in Thailand. The "New Burmese Method" emphasizes the attainment of vipassana , insight, by practising satipatthana , paying close attention to the ongoing changes in body and mind. Gil Fronsdal:. Instead, the meditator practices vipassana exclusively during intensive periods of silent retreat that can last several months with a daily schedule of meditation from a.
Nyanaponika Thera coined the term "bare attention" for the mindfulness practice of the "new Burmese Method. Sharf notes that Buddhist practice is aimed at the attainment of "correct view", not just "bare attention":. This was made possible through interpreting sati as a state of "bare awareness" — the unmediated, non-judgmental perception of things "as they are," uninflected by prior psychological, social, or cultural conditioning.
This notion of mindfulness is at variance with premodern Buddhist epistemologies in several respects. Traditional Buddhist practices are oriented more toward acquiring "correct view" and proper ethical discernment, rather than "no view" and a non-judgmental attitude. Mogok Sayadaw taught the importance of the awareness of noticing the 'arising' and 'Passing away' of all experience as the way to gain insight into impermanence.
Mogok Sayadaw emphasized the importance of right understanding and that a meditator should learn the theory of Dependent Origination Paticcasamuppada when practicing vipassana. The Mogok vipassana Method focuses on meditation of Feeling Vedanannupassana and meditation on Mind states Cittanupassana. The method of Pa Auk Sayadaw is closely based on the Visuddhimagga , a classic Theravada meditation manual. Pa Auk promotes the extensive development of the four jhanas , states of meditative absorption and focus.
The insight element is based on surveying the body by observing the four elements earth, water, fire and wind by using the sensations of hardness, heaviness, warmth and motion. Comparable developments took place within Thai Theravada Buddhism, yet with somewhat different textual, doctrinal and practical stances.
Mun Bhuridatta , the founder of the Thai Forest tradition, also sought to re-introduce the practice of meditation. While not a lay movement, the Thai Forest Tradition has been influential in the development of the lay meditation movements. Practitioners inhabit remote wilderness and forest dwellings as spiritual practice training grounds. It is widely known among Thai people for its orthodoxy, conservatism, and strict adherence to monastic rules vinaya. Perhaps its most widely known representative was Ajahn Chah ; Jack Kornfield , one of the main western teachers of Insight meditation, trained as a monk under Ajahn Chah.
Ajahn Sumedho is the senior Western representative of the Thai forest tradition, he was the abbot of Amaravati Buddhist Monastery — Western representatives of the Thai forest tradition are known to teach lay practitioners at the monasteries and to visit lay meditation centers to teach.
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Another influential scholar-monk was Buddhadasa , who gave his own original interpretation of key teachings, rejecting the classical rebirth-doctrine, and emphasizing liberation from dukkha in this life. Since the early s, insight meditation has gained a growing popularity in the western world,  and saw a synthesis of various practices and backgrounds, with the growing insight in its roots and doctrinal background, and the introduction of other modern traditions. A major developments is the popularisation of mindfulness as a technique of its own.
Jack Kornfield and Joseph Goldstein taught a series of classes at Naropa University in , and began teaching a series of retreats together for the next two years. The retreats were modeled on and day Goenka retreats, but the technique taught was mainly based on Mahasi Sayadaw's practice with the inclusion of Metta meditation.
Kornfield, and related teachers, tend to de-emphasize the religious elements of Buddhism such as "rituals, chanting, devotional and merit-making activities, and doctrinal studies" and focus on meditative practice.
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According to Jack Kornfield,. We wanted to offer the powerful practices of insight meditation, as many of our teachers did, as simply as possible without the complications of rituals, robes, chanting and the whole religious tradition. Some teachers adhere to a strict 'Burmese approach', in which meditation is equated with kasina concentration meditation, and vipassana is the main aim.
Others, like Bhikkhu Thannissaro, who trained in Thailand, criticise the Burmese orthodoxy, and propagate an integrative approach, in which samatha and vipassana are developed in tandem.
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Kornfield, who trained in both Burma and Thailand, also propagates an integrative approach. A main criticism of the Burmese method is its reliance on the commentatorial literature, in which vipassana is separated from samatha, and jhana is equated with concentration meditation.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu stresses the fact that the kasina method is marginally treated in the suttas, in which the emphasis is predominantly on jhana. In the suttas, samatha and vipassana are qualities of the mind which are developed together. This point is also reiterated by Shankman, arguing that samatha and vipassana cannot be separated. Groundbreaking research on early Buddhist meditation has been conducted by Bronkhorst,  Vetter,  Gethin,   Gombrich, [note 4] and Wynne  arguing that jhana may have been the core practice of early Buddhism, and noting that this practice was not a form of concentration-meditation, but a cumulative practice resulting in mindful awareness of objects while being indifferent to it.
The modern Bangladeshi teacher Dipa Ma , a student of Anagarika Munindra , was one of the first female Asian masters to be invited to teach in America. Her message to women and men was you don't have to leave your family to reach high states of spiritual understanding, and she taught a radical inclusiveness. She once said to Joseph Goldstein that "Women have an advantage over men because they have more supple minds It may be difficult for men to understand this, because they are men.
So there is hope for you. It involves five stages, the first of which was the mastery of self-compassion in mind and heart, then continuing to the other stages.
The prayer of the first stage, given in English is as follows:. Let me be free of dangers Let me be free of mental anxieties Let me pass my time with good body and happy mind. Indian teacher Ilaichidevi Goenka , was a wife of the Burmese-trained S. A ten-day retreat involved officials and inmates alike was then tried in India's largest prison Tihar Jail near New Delhi. Vipassana is being taught in Jail 4 of Tihar Prisons to inmates in two ten day courses every month around the year since onwards. This program was said to have dramatically changed the behavior of inmates and jailers alike.
Inmates who completed the ten-day course were less violent and had a lower recidivism rate than other inmates. This project was documented in the documentary film, Doing Time, Doing Vipassana. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Buddhist meditation movement. Dharma Concepts. Buddhist texts.
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